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According to the American Thoracic Society ATS , the general diagnostic criteria for asbestosis are:  Evidence of structural pathology consistent with asbestosis, as documented by imaging or histology Evidence of causation by asbestos as documented by the occupational and environmental history, markers of exposure usually pleural plaques , recovery of asbestos bodies, or other means Exclusion of alternative plausible causes for the findings The abnormal chest x-ray and its interpretation remain the most important factors in establishing the presence of pulmonary fibrosis.
CT or high-resolution CT HRCT are more sensitive than plain radiography at detecting pulmonary fibrosis as well as any underlying pleural changes. Once apparent, the radiographic findings in asbestosis may slowly progress or remain static, even in the absence of further asbestos exposure. Asbestosis resembles many other diffuse interstitial lung diseases, including other pneumoconiosis.
The differential diagnosis includes idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis IPF , hypersensitivity pneumonitis , sarcoidosis , and others. The presence of pleural plaques may provide supportive evidence of causation by asbestos.
Although lung biopsy is usually not necessary, the presence of asbestos bodies in association with pulmonary fibrosis establishes the diagnosis. Figure A shows the location of the lungs, airways, pleura, and diaphragm in the body. Figure B shows lungs with asbestos-related diseases, including pleural plaque, lung cancer, asbestosis, plaque on the diaphragm, and mesothelioma.
Extensive fibrosis of pleura and lung parenchyma. The arrow points to an uncoated segment of asbestos fiber in this ferruginous body. Severe pleural fibrosis with focal calcification. The black arrows point to ferrugionous bodies that are located at the periphery of a focus of non-small cell lung carcinoma, NOS. Treatment[ edit ] There is no cure available for asbestosis. Supportive treatment of symptoms includes respiratory physiotherapy to remove secretions from the lungs by postural drainage, chest percussion, and vibration.
Nebulized medications may be prescribed in order to loosen secretions or treat underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunization against pneumococcal pneumonia and annual influenza vaccination is administered due to increased sensitivity to the diseases.
Those with asbestosis are at increased risk for certain cancers. If the person smokes, quitting the habit reduces further damage. Society and culture[ edit ] Main article: Asbestos and the law The death of English textile worker Nellie Kershaw in from pulmonary asbestosis was the first case to be described in medical literature, and the first published account of disease attributed to occupational asbestos exposure.
However, her former employers Turner Brothers Asbestos denied that asbestosis even existed because the medical condition was not officially recognised at the time. As a result, they accepted no liability for her injuries and paid no compensation, either to Kershaw during her final illness or to her family after her death.
Even so, the findings of the inquest into her death were highly influential insofar as they led to a parliamentary enquiry by the British Parliament. The enquiry formally acknowledged the existence of asbestosis, recognised that it was hazardous to health and concluded that it was irrefutably linked to the prolonged inhalation of asbestos dust.
Having established the existence of asbestosis on a medical and judicial basis, the report resulted in the first Asbestos Industry Regulations being published in , which came into effect on 1 March Since then, many lawsuits have been filed against asbestos manufacturers and employers, for neglecting to implement safety measures after the link between asbestos, asbestosis and mesothelioma became known some reports seem to place this as early as in modern times.
The liability resulting from the sheer number of lawsuits and people affected has reached billions of U. The amounts and method of allocating compensation have been the source of many court cases, and government attempts at resolution of existing and future cases. To date, about companies have declared bankruptcy at least partially due to asbestos-related liability. From through , analysis from the United States Government Accountability Office indicates that trusts have paid about 3.
Asbestosis – Síntomas, Causas, Tratamiento
Asbestosis: definición, causas, síntomas, diagnóstico, tratamiento, prevención