Early life and education[ edit ] Picture taken on his 95th birthday Irvin M. Borish was born on January 21, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He also had a younger brother and sister who were twins. His family moved to Liberty, N.
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Benjamin, Editor, Irvin M. It is a supreme tribute to the clinical skills and the plethora of optoelectronic instruments that are available to optometrists and ophthalmologists that they can determine the altered refraction that is required to restore normal visual acuity.
Before the era of photorefractive surgery, before the era of contact lenses, there were glasses that is, two pieces of glass that are polished in such a manner to achieve the required alteration in the light paths by the process of refraction , and they are mounted in a frame to be worn on the bridge of the nose and the ears and thus remain stationary with respect to the visual axes of the eyes.
With eyeglasses, as compared to hand-held single lens magnifiers that were used for reading, the hands are free and the glasses remain stationary with respect to movements of the head and the body. In the history of inventions, eyeglasses provide an example of a simple idea that when properly implemented provides individuals with a great improvement in their quality of life.
What is the origin of high quality spectacles? In a thoroughly researched and beautifully illustrated new book, Renaissance Vision from Spectacles to Telescopes Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, Vincent Ilardi provides new evidence that 15th century Florence was the center for the production of high quality spectacles.
While Venice during the same period also produced eyeglasses, the emphasis was on items such as mirrors, vessels and similar objects that resulted in higher profits. The glass industry in Florence existed from the early 13th century, and by the time of the middle of the 17th century it was producing high-quality glass that even Venice could not surpass. For this edition, William J. Benjamin served as the editor, Irvin M. Borish served as consultant, and 58 clinicianscientists contributed chapters.
Both the editors and the contributors deserve acclaim for their scholarly and clearly written and superbly illustrated chapters that comprise this one-volume tome on the principles and the clinical practice of refraction and associated subjects such as color vision, contrast sensitivity, ocular motility, and visual fields. The extensive scope of this volume is indicated by additional chapters on infants, toddlers, and children; patients with amblyopia and strabismus; patients with anisometropia and aniseikonia; patients with high refractive error; patients with keratoconus and irregular astigmatism; the elderly; patients with low vision; and a final chapter on the refractive effects of ocular disease.
First, the clear explanation of the science related to the relevant topic; the anatomy, the physiology, the biochemistry, the neural pathways, the pharmacology, the optics, the materials and their optical and mechanical properties that comprise the lenses of glasses and contact lenses. Second, the art of the appropriate clinical practice that involves the physical examination of the eyes, clinical measurement of the optical properties of the visual system, measurements of the shape of the cornea, the aberrations of the visual system, and the logical approach to select and fit the appropriate glasses or contact lenses, or the procedures of various types of photorefractive surgery.
The successful clinician needs to know both the basic science as well as the details of the procedures that are required for the diagnosis and management of refractive eye conditions, and the reference book provides the principles and the clinical procedures for the diagnosis and the management of refractive eye conditions. As expected, the bulk of the volume is devoted to a detailed, critical and comprehensive treatment of the following topics: the examination of the visual system, the various techniques to measure refraction, and the analysis and prescription of optical corrections.
I will proceed by pointing out the significant features of two chapters, in order to illustrate the basis of my evaluation of this book. Again, these examples serve as exemplars of the remaining chapters in the book. I begin with the chapter on corneal topography. The shape of the anterior corneal surface is important for both the diagnosis and the management of many ocular conditions.
If the cornea was a portion of a sphere, the task would be simplified; of course, the human cornea is not spherical, and that is only the beginning of the array of difficult problems that must be solved to design and calibrate an instrument that is capable of measuring the shape of the cornea.
It is of note that both Helmholtz and Gullstrand independently worked on the problem of designing an instrument to measure the shape of the cornea. In modern times, the personal computer was used to calculate the shape of the cornea from a target of concentric rings Placido disk ; the results depend on the assumptions and the limitations of the mathematical models and the details of the calculation algorithm.
The important points of this chapter are the discussion of the accuracy and the assumptions that are implicit in the calculation of corneal shape. To emphasize these factors the authors have placed them in a summary box: assumptions and limitations inherent in standard keratometry. For example, in the section on keratometer principles we learn that the keratometer measures the radius of curvature of a small region of the central cornea. The value of this chapter is a critical discussion of the assumptions and the limitations for each type of instrument that is used to measure corneal shape.
I stress this point, because so much of the commercial marketing literature either ignores or provides minimal discussion and evidence from peer-reviewed publications that provide experimental data in support of the accuracy and the precision of a particular instrument.
More modern instruments use proprietary reconstruction algorithms to model the corneal surface. The Klein algorithm is presented as one solution to the problems that are inherent in the older two-dimensional algorithms that were used in reconstruction of the corneal shape. The highlights of the chapter on corneal topography are the critical and detailed discussions of the comparison of the various corneal-surface descriptors, the comparison of the various videokeratoscopic instruments, the role of alignment, focus and reference planes, the discussion of color maps and their interpretation, as well as the critical and important subject of the analysis of accuracy and repeatability.
Corneal topographical mapping is an important measurement system, and the data is presented in various color-coded forms: surface elevation maps, dioptric corneal maps, axial curvature maps, instantaneous curvature maps and ray-tracing refractive power maps. The authors present a critical evaluation of the various approaches for the display of topographical maps. Today it is possible to measure optical aberrations over the entire pupil that are smaller than the wavelength of the incident light.
The primary purpose of wavefront aberrometers is to accurately measure the aberrations of the eye. This is particularly important for mitigating the unwanted effects of spherical aberrations and coma that occur with refractive surgery.
The goal of developing wavefront refraction is to improve the precision and the accuracy of both autorefractors and subjective refraction for visible light. The wavefront distortion is measured by the root-mean-squared wavefront error, and an eye is considered to be emmetropic if the total distortion over the pupil is minimal. The most common form of wavefront sensor is the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. This wavefront sensor measures the slope or the spatial derivative of the wavefront; the integration of the wavefront slope yields the shape of the aberrated wavefront.
The authors provide excellent discussions of methods to interpret the wavefront aberration function, how to classify the aberrations in terms of Zernike polynomials, and a comprehensive analysis of various metrics to access the optical quality of the eye. Finally, they describe the challenge of using wavefront measurement to prescribe the most appropriate vision aids. While the text emphasizes the examination of the eye and the visual system, the methods of refraction, and the prescription of various types of spectacles and contact lens, there is also a detailed analysis and discussion of the field of refractive surgery and prosthetic devices.
The second edition has many new features; for example, an expanded chapter on patients with keratoconus and irregular astigmatism. An important section is devoted to the special ocular conditions that are of importance to the clinician.
In conclusion, I highly recommend this very practical book for its honest, critical, comprehensive, and scholarly approach.
Borish's Clinical Refraction, 2nd Edition
Benjamin OD MS PhD Now updated and expanded to cover the latest technologies, this full-color text on clinical refraction uses an easy-to-read format to give optometry students and practitioners all the important information they need. Also covers a wide range of other aspects of the eye exam, including anterior and posterior segment evaluations, contact lens, ocular pharmacology, and visual field analysis. Four new chapters cover wavefront-guided refraction, optical correction with refractive surgeries, prosthetic devices, and patients with ocular pathology. Presents individualized refractive approaches for the full range of patients, including special patient populations.
Benjamin, Editor, Irvin M. It is a supreme tribute to the clinical skills and the plethora of optoelectronic instruments that are available to optometrists and ophthalmologists that they can determine the altered refraction that is required to restore normal visual acuity. Before the era of photorefractive surgery, before the era of contact lenses, there were glasses that is, two pieces of glass that are polished in such a manner to achieve the required alteration in the light paths by the process of refraction , and they are mounted in a frame to be worn on the bridge of the nose and the ears and thus remain stationary with respect to the visual axes of the eyes. With eyeglasses, as compared to hand-held single lens magnifiers that were used for reading, the hands are free and the glasses remain stationary with respect to movements of the head and the body. In the history of inventions, eyeglasses provide an example of a simple idea that when properly implemented provides individuals with a great improvement in their quality of life. What is the origin of high quality spectacles?