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Hatilima UNZA Acknowledgements I wish to express my appreciation to all the people who made this research internship not only possible but also greatly productive. Hubert Roth for selecting me under his institute; thanks to Ruger Winnegge and Mrs. Hoffman for the great logistical support. Zulu Head of Dept. EEE for the support, Mr. Mkandawire, Mr.
Kapulu, and Mr. Kaoma for the guidance during the preparation phase. My acknowledgements will be incomplete without thanking the people that directly supervised me and gave me the valuable experience that I now have. So in that regard, I would like to thank my supervisor Dip.
Peter Sahm and BSc. Pawel Malicki for their direct supervision. Particulars of intern: Jasper V. Hatilima jasperhatilima yahoo. The global aims of the internship are: i. Academic exchange between German and Zambian universities, in this case University of Siegen and University of Zambia.
Learn from Germany, specifically University of Siegen, the approach used in bridging the gap between the skills from the university graduates and the requirements by the industry. My supervisor used the global objectives above to come up with specific objectives that could be measured and tracked and used to give an indication of overall progress.
These include: 1. To have at least one industrial visit to see the actual application of automation and robotics in German industries. The above tasks were done successfully i. The rest of the report therefore outlines the actual works done, the achievements, some conclusions and a few suggestions for my home institution, the University of Zambia, based on the experience gained during the CoGL internship.
PLC Programming September Tic-Tac-Toe Game Networking the PLC October Industrial Visit and other learning Points Figures Pictures Recommendations and Next Step Appendix A: Components Used in the Project PLC Programming September A Programmable Logic Controller PLC , Speicherprogrammierbare Steuerung SPS , is a digital controller that is used in automation of processes such as industrial production lines automatic assembly, automatic welding, automatic painting , amusement rides, etc.
It can be regarded as a microcontroller in a box on which a lot of optimization work has been done to make it scalable, more universal and resistant to EMI, dust, temperature, moisture and vibrations. For Siemens, these languages can be selected from within the development environments provided by Siemens i. The player who succeeds to place three respective marks in a row wins the game.
One of the objectives in his paper was to implement Tic-Tac-Toe game on a PLC and use the game to pack work-pieces in racks similar to selection of a square in the Tic-Tac-Toe grid i. Our project therefore continues on this previously done Tic-Tac-Toe game in . This counter was obtained by summing up all the data block entries and getting Modulus 6 of the total.
FC4 checks if the robot has sent a ready pulse M2. If the above are true, the FC1 block called from FC4 allows the player to move and sets the correct bits from the Q0. It also sets the Q1. As the robot is still drawing, FC8, called from within FC4, does the combination evaluation by taking sums of the winning lines. It stores the summation results in the DB1 block. FC7 is then called from within FC4 to check if there is a winner. In FC3, this flag from the robot I0.
The flag then goes off since it is a finite pulse , but M2. This too is done from within FC4. But additionally, this computer move is also conditioned with I0. This is similar to the visual aid M2. A list of all the symbols used is included in the appendix describing each variable. And then a number of automation communication protocols are defined for use on these ports e.
It requires less wiring compared to conventional wiring and creates very scalable control networks. In this case the master being the CPU DP PLC and the desired slave must be dragged from the drop down list of the standard slaves and dropped into the table for the master system.
The input byte and output byte addresses are automatically assigned as I Address and Q Address respectively in the table. In our user program, selection of a Tic-Tac-Toe cell in the playing grid activated one of the coils from Q0. For the inputs, two bits were used, I0. LDB file in the Simatic Manager windows. Ldb 5 but nothing has to be configured inside the LDB file itself as it will not be used. The rest of the parameters under this slave section can be left as default or can be changed depending on application.
INI file. Since the CP card is used as a slave module, the remote address has to be used. What means is that the KRC should be sending and receiving data through the slave port of CP from the Master device. Addresses 1 to are for accessing slave 6 devices connected to the slave port of the CP The 0 means the offset from byte 10 and the multiplier x2 means the number of bytes that it should write to.
A similar explanation holds for the outputs though only one byte was configured here, i. This means that bits 83 to 88 are free. They have manufactured robots that have been used in food processing and car assembly e. BMW . Our robot of interest in this project is the KR16, an articulated robot, a six axis robot with maximum payload of 16kgs. SRC and. The other kinds of motion can then be inserted into the program.
DAT file contains the data points while the. SRC file contains the movement commands i. Cloos exclusively manufactures all the systems components for their solutions i. It was also important to learn that Cloos also manufactures agricultural solutions e. Factory segmentation was also one important aspect observed at Cloos. The set of components are then moved in stages through the various stations of the assembly line. This greatly improves the production efficiency.
The training centre within the factory was also one notable feature of how industry sustains its man power and encouraging in-house innovation. Thomas Magnete manufactures, among other things, Oil Control Pumps, solenoid for Adjustable Camshaft, solenoid for Active Steering, valves for transmission control, metering and delivery pumps for fuel. These actuators are used in various systems from automotive industry engine, transmission, and safety , aerospace engineering and medical technologies.
One notable point in the tour at Thomas was seeing PLCs and industrial robots in actual use in a production line. Thomas also used LabView for their process flow design. It is very enlightening to see that production of such complex systems like the BMW vehicles gets input from various small industrial players in Germany.
BMW produces the 11 vehicles but gets the actuators from Thomas Magnete. Thomas Magnete get their robots systems and their reloadable component feeders for their production lines from KUKA, Fanuc, Epson, etc. This structure of production and the understandings between industries creates a broad playing field for start-ups and scientific innovation in the industrial automation and production sector. Interaction and networking with other members in the lab was also one great achievement and it is hoped that this will pave way for future cooperation among the members.
Figures Pictures Below are some of the pictures during the various phases of the project: Figure 7. Conclusion As can be seen from the report, the main aims of the CoGL internship were achieved. The academic exchange was a great learning point for me as an individual but it has also created an opportunity for my undergraduate students in Zambia to learn from my experience in Germany.
From the general objectives point of view, seeing how the University of Siegen conducts research in a manner that meets the engineering needs of the industries was an important learning point.
It is apparent that the German universities have intense collaboration with industry and the students have most of their research based on industrial demands. And though not a core item, my experience in Germany was a great addition to my diverse cultural experience having lived in China, South Africa and my country Zambia. It was a moment to appreciate and learn from the way things are generally done in Germany from cultural, social and educational life.
It may not be one of the main objectives of the internship but it really made me know and appreciate the German lifestyle and culture first-hand. This has well aligned the laboratory work of the students with the demands from industry. From this, it is recommended that the University of Zambia can learn from the seamless collaboration between industry and academia in Germany. As the situation is currently, the University of Zambia works more like an independent entity that only specializes in imparting theory into the students and later offloading them to industry, especially those from engineering disciplines.
This has made university research and industrial practice totally two separate entities i. The responsibility to close this gap seems mutual i.