Thirty minutes later, all the rats in groups 2—6 were treated with piroxicam. Flora of Zimbabwe: Species information: Crossopteryx febrifuga Crossopteryx febrifuga, extract, analgesic, anti-inflammatory agents, gastrointestinal tract, ulcer. Finally, the flavonoids febrifhga the major secondary metabolites class with several descriptions of antiulcer, antioxidant and gastroprotective properties, which involves nitric oxide participation Matsuda et al. Five hundred grams of the coarse powder was cold macerated with 2. The rats were kept under the same conditions and observed for signs of toxicity which include but not limited to paw-licking, stretching, respiratory distress and mortality for the first critical 4h and thereafter daily for 7 days. Table 3 Results of Histopathology examinations.
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Abstract Preparations of Crossopteryx febrifuga Afzel. Rubiaceae are widely used in Northern Nigeria in the therapeutic management of trypanosomiasis, malaria and painful inflammatory disorders. Previous studies have shown that the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga possesses significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties possibly mediated via Non-selective inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase pathways. In the present study, the methanolic stem bark extract of Crossopteryx febrifuga was evaluated against ethanol- and piroxicam-induced ulceration in rats.
Histopathological studies of the rat stomach tissues were also carried out in order to determine its safety profile on the gastrointestinal tract git. These results showed that the extract had no deleterious effects and was cytoprotective on the gastrointestinal tract git.
It can thus be developed as a safe alternative to conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs for the management of painful inflammatory disorders. Keywords: Crossopteryx febrifuga, extract, analgesic, anti-inflammatory agents, gastrointestinal tract, ulcer Introduction Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs , which act as non-selective cyclooxygenase COX inhibitors, are commonly used to treat pain and inflammation despite the risk of major upper gastrointestinal complications Venkova et al.
The primary cause of the pathogenic effects of NSAIDs in the stomach is the deficiency of endogenous prostaglandins required to maintain the mucosal barrier to luminal acid. Oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation Takeuchi et al. However, a breakdown in the mucosal barrier against gastric acid is not the only mechanism contributing to mucosal injury during NSAIDs administration.
Studies by Santo et al. However in African countries including Nigeria, indigenous herbal medicines are widely used for the management of painful inflammatory disorders, despite an apparent lack of scientific evidence for their quality, safety and efficacy Fennell et al.
One of such therapeutically useful medicinal plant is Crossopteryx febrifuga Benth, Family Rubiaceae , a twisted tree with conspicuous tubular flowers, which is widely distributed throughout the Savannah region of Central, East and West Africa.
Preparations of the tree is used traditionally for symptomatic relief of dry cough and for treatment of septic wounds, respiratory infections, fever, dysentery and pain. In northern Nigeria, the plant has been used for treatment of pain and malaria for many years and its efficacy has been established in our laboratory Salawu et al. Previous studies using crude methanolic extract of C. Salawu et al. Considering its widespread use in traditional medicine for the management of pain and inflammatory disorders such as arthritis, the need to investigate its safety on the gastrointestinal tract cannot be over emphasized.
The present study was therefore designed to study its effect on the gastrointestinal tract when used for management of chronic pain related disorders.
Materials and Methods Collection plant material Fresh stem bark of C. Preparation of the plant extract The stem bark was cleaned, air-dried for seven 7 days and crushed into coarse powder using a pestle and mortar.
Five hundred grams of the coarse powder was cold macerated with 2. The resultant mixture was filtered using Whatman filter paper No. These rats were approved for use by the AFC committee after reviewing the protocol. The studies were carried out following the principles of good laboratory practice and animal handling National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and use for Laboratory animals; Publication No. The rats were kept under the same conditions and observed for signs of toxicity which include but not limited to paw-licking, stretching, respiratory distress and mortality for the first critical 4h and thereafter daily for 7 days.
These rats were also observed for signs of toxicity and mortality for the first critical 4h and thereafter daily for 7 days. The number of deaths in each group within 24 h was recorded and the final LD 50 values were calculated as the geometric mean of the highest nonlethal dose with no deaths and the lowest lethal dose where deaths occurred.
Ethanol-induced gastric ulceration The method described by Salawu et al. Twenty four hours fasted rats were randomized into 6 groups of 5 rats each. Group 1 rats served as the normal control received no treatment.
Thirty mins later, 1ml of absolute ethanol was administered to all the rats in groups 2—6. One hour after ethanol administration, the rats were sacrificed under diethyl ether anaesthesia. The stomachs were removed, opened along the greater curvature, rinsed with slow running water.
Piroxicam-induced gastric ulceration The method described by Salawu et al. Thirty minutes later, all the rats in groups 2—6 were treated with piroxicam. Six hours after piroxicam administration, the rats in all the groups were sacrificed under diethyl ether anesthesia. These were then processed routinely and the tissues were embedded in paraffin wax.
These were then examined by a consultant histopathologist. The lesions observed were assessed for the following; mucosal atrophy, presence of inflammatory cells in the wall, eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Photomicrographs of representative lesions were taken at various magnifications. Statistical Analysis Graph pad prism version 5. Results Acute toxicity tests In the first phase of the oral acute toxicity study, no remarkable signs of toxicity were observed in the rats.
Effects of the extract on ethanol-induced gastric ulceration Ethanol produced haemorrhagic gastric lesions mainly in the glandular segment of the stomach mucosa.
Table 1 Effect of Crossopteryx febrifuga on ethanol-induced gastric ulceration in rats.
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Crossopteryx febrifuga (Afzel. ex G. Don) Benth. - Rubiaceae - Dicotyledones
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