Paperback - pages February Morgan Kaufmann Publishers If you want to see how your next database project can profit from object-oriented design, check out Database Design for Smarties, a lively and intelligent guide to using objects in databases. The book begins with a tour of some underlying factors in modeling databases. Here, the author distinguishes between the external, conceptual, and internal models of database design. After discussing some of the pitfalls of gathering and implementing user requirements, the author looks at UML notation for use case diagrams.

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Lucidchart makes it easy to draw UML diagrams A picture is worth a thousand words. Try Lucidchart. The Unified Modeling Language UML was created to forge a common, semantically and syntactically rich visual modeling language for the architecture, design, and implementation of complex software systems both structurally and behaviorally.

UML has applications beyond software development, such as process flow in manufacturing. In the aggregate, UML diagrams describe the boundary, structure, and the behavior of the system and the objects within it.

UML is not a programming language but there are tools that can be used to generate code in various languages using UML diagrams. UML has a direct relation with object-oriented analysis and design. UML and its role in object-oriented modeling and design There are many problem-solving paradigms or models in Computer Science, which is the study of algorithms and data.

There are four problem-solving model categories: imperative, functional, declarative and object-oriented languages OOP. Those objects are things to be manipulated and they exist in the real world. They can be buildings, widgets on a desktop, or human beings. Object-oriented languages dominate the programming world because they model real-world objects.

UML represents best practices for building and documenting different aspects of software and business system modeling. They teamed up to provide clarity for programmers by creating new standards. The collaboration between Grady, Booch, and Rumbaugh made all three methods stronger and improved the final product.

The efforts of these thinkers resulted in the release of the UML 0. They, along with many other individuals and companies, established resources that could develop a full-fledged modeling language.

OMG standards are driven by vendors, end-users, academic institutions and government agencies. OMG Task Forces develop enterprise integration standards for a wide range of technologies and an even wider range of industries.

This oversight gives engineers and programmers the ability to use one language for many purposes during all phases of the software lifecycle for all system sizes. The purpose of UML according to OMG The OMG defines the purpose of the UML as: Providing system architects, software engineers, and software developers with tools for analysis, design, and implementation of software-based systems as well as for modeling business and similar processes.

Advancing the state of the industry by enabling object visual modeling tool interoperability. However, to enable meaningful exchange of model information between tools, agreement on semantics and notation is required. The abstract syntax defines the set of UML modeling concepts, their attributes and their relationships, as well as the rules for combining these concepts to construct partial or complete UML models.

Providing a detailed explanation of the semantics of each UML modeling concept. Specifying the human-readable notation elements for representing the individual UML modeling concepts as well as rules for combining them into a variety of different diagram types corresponding to different aspects of modeled systems.

Defining ways in which UML tools can be made compliant with this specification. This is supported in a separate specification with an XML-based specification of corresponding model interchange formats XMI that must be realized by compliant tools. One reason is simply that the UML creators did not focus on databases. Despite this, the UML is effective for high-level conceptual data modeling, and it can be used in different types of UML diagrams.

You can find information about layering of an object-oriented class model onto a relational database in this article about Database Modeling in UML.

Diagramming is quick and easy with Lucidchart. Start a free trial today to start creating and collaborating. UML 2. The goal was to restructure and refine UML so that usability, implementation, and adaptation are simplified. Here are some of the updates to UML diagrams: Greater integration between structural and behavior models. Ability to define hierarchy and breakdown a software system into components and sub-components.

Object: These are Class Diagrams, which describe the structure of the system in terms of objects, attributes, associations, and operations. These system models are visualized through two different types of diagrams: structural and behavioral. In software development, objects can be used to describe, or model, the system being created in terms that are relevant to the domain. Objects also allow the decomposition of complex systems into understandable components that allow one piece to be built at a time.

Here are some fundamental concepts of an object-oriented world: Objects Represent an entity and the basic building block. Class Blue print of an object. Abstraction Behavior of a real world entity. Encapsulation Mechanism of binding the data together and hiding them from outside world. Inheritance Mechanism of making new classes from existing one. Polymorphism It defines the mechanism to exists in different forms. Types of UML diagrams UML uses elements and associates them in different ways to form diagrams that represent static, or structural aspects of a system, and behavioral diagrams, which capture the dynamic aspects of a system.

Classes within a system, attributes and operations and the relationship between each class. Classes are grouped together to create class diagrams when diagramming large systems. Component Diagram Displays the structural relationship of software system elements, most often employed when working with complex systems with multiple components. Components communicate using interfaces. Composite Structure Diagram Composite structure diagrams are used to show the internal structure of a class.

Deployment Diagram Illustrates system hardware and its software. Useful when a software solution is deployed across multiple machines with unique configurations.

Object Diagram Shows the relationship between objects using real world examples and illustrates how a system will look at any given time.

Because data is available within objects, they can be used to clarify relationships between objects. Package Diagram There are two special types of dependencies defined between packages: package import and package merge. Packages can represent the different levels of a system to reveal the architecture. Package dependencies can be marked to show the communication mechanism between levels. Behavioral UML diagrams Activity Diagrams Graphically represented business or operational workflows to show the activity of any part or component in the system.

Activity diagrams are used as an alternative to State Machine diagrams. Communication Diagram Similar to sequence diagrams, but the focus is on messages passed between objects. The same information can be represented using a sequence diagram and different objects. Interaction Overview Diagram There are seven types of interaction diagrams, and this diagram shows the sequence in which they act. Sequence Diagram Shows how objects interact with each other and the order of occurrence.

They represent interactions for a particular scenario. State Diagram Similar to activity diagrams, they describe the behavior of objects that behave in varying ways in their current state. Timing Diagram Like Sequence Diagrams, the behavior of objects in a given time frame are represented. If there is a single object, the diagram is simple. With more than one object, interactions of objects are shown during that particular time frame. How to create a UML diagram: Tutorials and examples To illustrate how to create different types of UML diagrams, try one or all of these tutorials to guide you through the process of drawing both structural and behavioral diagrams.

A class diagram can display computational data or organizational data in the form of implementation classes and logical classes, respectively. There may be overlap between these two groups. Classes are represented with a rectangular shape that is split into thirds. The bottom section features the class operations also known as methods.

Add class shapes to your class diagram to model the relationship between those objects. You may need to add subclasses, as well. Use lines to represent association, inheritance, multiplicity, and other relationships between classes and subclasses. Your preferred notation style will inform the notation of these lines. These diagrams are meant to model the dependencies of each component in the system. A component is something required to execute a stereotype function. A component stereotype may consist of executables, documents, database tables, files, or library files.

Represent a component with a rectangle shape. It should have two small rectangles on the side, or feature an icon with this shape. Add lines between component shapes to represent the relevant relationships. Deployment diagrams demonstrate where and how the components of a system will operate in conjunction with each other. When drawing a deployment diagram, use the same notation that you use for a component diagram.

Use a 3-D cube to model a node which represents a physical machine or virtual machine. Label the node in the same style that is used for sequence diagrams. Add other nodes as needed, then connect with lines. These diagram are made of specialized shapes, then connected with arrows. The notation set for activity diagrams is similar to those for state diagrams.

Begin your activity diagram with a solid circle. Connect the circle to the first activity, which is modeled with a round-edged rectangle. Now, connect each activity to other activities with lines that demonstrate the stepwise flow of the entire process. You can also try using swimlanes to represent the objects that perform each activity. Use case diagrams depict the specifications of a use case and model the functional units of a system.

These diagrams help development teams understand the requirements of their system, including the role of human interaction therein and the differences between various use cases.


What is Unified Modeling Language



Chapter 3. Business Modeling for Database Design



Database Design for Smarties: Using UML for Data Modeling / Edition 1


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