The pronunciation is the same for both spellings. In his fourth year, his father moved the family to Dessau near the Junkers factory in pursuit of professional advancement. There, as Oswald grew, he turned to athletics. Under this influence, while in the third or fourth form, the young Oswald Boelcke had the audacity to write a personal letter to the Kaiser requesting an appointment to military school.
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The Dicta Boelcke consists of the following 8 rules:  1. Try to secure the upper hand before attacking. If possible, keep the sun behind you Edit Advantages for World War I aircraft included speed, altitude, surprise , performance and numerical superiority. Speed: the pilot with the faster of two machines has control over the combat. He has the choice to break off combat and retire.
The slower machine can not catch him. The pilot of a slower machine must stay on the defense. He can not run to safety. A fast moving aircraft can perform elaborate maneuvers, giving its pilot many options. A machine flying close to its stall speed can do little beyond wallowing in a more or less straight line. Level flight was fine, but climbing to a higher altitude took several minutes and cut air speed nearly in half. By , engine power and speed increased.
Speed was critical. Altitude: From the advantage of flying above his opponent, a pilot had more control over how and where the fight takes place. He could dive upon his opponent, gaining a sizable speed advantage for a hit and run attack. Or, if the enemy had too many advantages- numbers for instance- a pilot could fly away with a good head start. At best, World War I aircraft climbed very slowly compared with later types.
Most air victories were achieved in the first pass. The glare of the sun, especially, provided an effective hiding spot. Performance: Knowing the strengths, weakness and capabilities of your own aircraft, and that of your foe, was also critical. Who was faster, who could turn tighter, how many were there, etc.
Boelcke and his pilots intercepted a flight of bombers and fighters crossing the lines. He chose not to attack right away, but had his Jasta climb higher above the bombers, keeping themselves between the bombers and the sun. There they circled and waited.
When the bomber pilots, observers and fighter escort pilots were preoccupied with the destruction they were causing on the ground, Boelcke signaled for his pilots to attack. Several enemy aircraft went down and Jasta 2 lost no one. Always continue with an attack you have begun Edit Rookie pilots would start a fight, but instinct fear would convince them to break it off and run.
Boelcke learned that it was far better to stay and continue mixing it up — waiting for his opponent to make mistakes or flee — than to break and run. To turn tail and run was to surrender most, if not all, of the advantages a pilot might have had. When their endless circling had brought them down near the ground behind German lines, Hawker had to choose between landing and capture or fleeing. He chose to flee. Richthofen was then able to get behind him and shoot him down. The rattle of machine gun fire would alert the intended target and gave them time to react.
The machine guns available for aircraft during the First World War were not highly accurate at longer ranges. Add to that the difficulty of aiming from a moving, bouncing gun platform at a fast moving target and it is a marvel that anyone ever hit anything. Once the rattle of his guns was heard, the advantage of surprise was gone, so it was best to make that first shot most effective.
Another aspect of making each shot count was the limited supply of ammunition carried in World War I aircraft — usually only a few hundred rounds. This could amount to less than 60 seconds of sustained fire. Reloading in the air varied from dangerous to impossible. Spraying the sky with lead in hopes of hitting something, eventually, was not an option. Shots had to be chosen carefully. Early in the war, when a sense of chivalry still held sway, some men allowed their opponents to depart if they were out of ammunition or had jammed guns.
Total war did not allow such courtesies to last for long. In the hustle and bustle of an air fight it was easy to lose sight of your adversary. A restatement of this rule might be: never assume you know where your opponent is or will be.
A successful pilot did not allow himself to be distracted from his opponent. As far as ruses go, it was not an uncommon practice for a pilot to feign being hit, going into a supposedly uncontrolled spin or dive, in order to exit a fight that was not going well.
This practice traded on the chivalry of their opponents. To continue hammering a man who was already going down, was thought unsportsmanlike. Boelcke recognized that too many enemies were being allowed to escape and return to fight another day.
War for national survival was not sport. He taught against the accepted notion that once a machine began to spin down, that one could move on. If it were a ruse, the enemy pilot would pull out at the last moment and either escape or return to attack, perhaps now having gained the advantage of surprise.
Boelcke wanted his pupils to follow their opponent down, and make sure they were out of the fight or resume the fight if necessary. While a few pilots were adept at the mental calculations necessary and good aerial marksmen, most were much less adept. The velocity of a moving gun platform, the speed of bullets plus the speed and direction of a moving target could be a lot to consider in the heat of battle.
Such crossing gave less exposure to the bullets. Head-on attacks or head-to-tail attacks required little or no calculated deflection in aim. Because of the prevalence of attacks from the rear, aircraft design adapted to allow for rear firing guns in two-seaters and larger bombers.
If your opponent dives on you, do not try to get around his attack, but fly to meet it Edit This rule is related to dictum 5 above. The instinctive reaction of many rookies was to turn and flee from an approaching attacker—especially a diving one. This simply presented their tail to the attacker, usually with disastrous results. Boelcke taught that a pilot had to conquer that instinct.
Turning to face the attack could force the attacker onto the defensive, or at least keep the situation unsettled, which was far better than presenting your tail. Furthermore, if both fighters miss, the diving attacker must now pull out of his dive, while the defender is now in position to circle around and counter-attack with his own dive. This rule sounds as though it is stating the obvious, but Boelcke found it necessary to include it.
More than a few pilots came down behind enemy lines because they got confused and lost their way. In World War I, aerial navigation was done mostly by sight. Taking regular note of landmarks helped a pilot get his bearings quickly, perhaps making the difference between safety and captivity.
Tip for Squadrons: In principle, it is better to attack in groups of four or six. Avoid two aircraft attacking the same opponent Edit In the first year or so of World War I, air combat was more of a one-on-one affair.
The early aces, like Pegoud , Garros , Boelcke and Immelmann , hunted the skies alone. As the war progressed, the sheer number of machines in the sky increased.
Several reconnaissance machines traveled together for mutual protection, further protected by escorting fighters. Boelcke recognized that the days of the lone hunter were over.
Many young pilots, however, still came to the front expecting to dash valiantly into battle as an errant knight, alone, but in reality they would be quickly overwhelmed by multiple enemies. Boelcke tirelessly lectured his pupils on the need for teamwork—sometimes scolding them for acting too independently. Attacking in a group allowed the leader to concentrate his attention exclusively on his target, while his wingmen protected his tail. Air battles later in the war could involve dozens of aircraft from each side at the same time.
The sky could become a swirling tangle of machines. When your side was at a numerical disadvantage, it was especially important not to double up on one opponent. Later in the war, teamwork became the primary key to success and survival. See also.
Rules of success in air combat, compiled by Hauptmann Oswald Boelcke. Annotated by Micheal Shackelford. Introduction During the first half of the Great War, pilots and commanders were still sorting out what role aircraft might have in modern war. No one had fought a major war with aircraft before. There was no shortage of theories, but there were no established rules nor veterans to guide eager young pilots. Brave men learned their craft by trial and error.
Quando la battaglia si frammenta in combattimenti individuali, attenzione a non concentrarsi in molti su un solo avversario. Cercare di garantirsi una posizione migliore prima di attaccare. La maggior parte di vittorie nella Prima guerra mondiale di aria fu realizzata al primo passaggio. Senza avere apparecchiature come il radar, un pilota potrebbe avvicinarsi di nascosto al suo nemico usando nubi, foschia o usando anche le ali degli aerei del nemico o arrivare in coda celando il proprio approccio.