The Hail Mary in Kikongo. At present there is no standard orthography of Kikongo, with a variety in use in written literature, mostly newspapers, pamphlets and a few books. Kongo was the earliest Bantu language which was committed to writing in Latin characters and had the earliest dictionary of any Bantu language. A catechism was produced under the authority of Diogo Gomes, a Jesuit born in Kongo of Portuguese parents in , but no version of it exists today. In the back of this dictionary is found a sermon of two pages written only in Kongo. The dictionary has some 10, words.
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Yozshugor The irregular conjugation of the verb kuvanda or kuvuanda to be is presented in kimongo table below. Vowels are never reduced, regardless of stress. Another theory claims that a simplified trade language called Kifyoti was developed at the Portuguese coastal trading 18 post and it was later spread upstream by the Christian missionaries to the region between the Kwango and the Kasai rivers where it evolved further hence the name Kikwango.
Kituba is the largest language of dictiobnaire Republic of Congo. The suffix indicating voice is adding after the verb root and before the suffix indicating tense. Most verb forms have long and short versions. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. There are several fictionnaire on how Kituba came into being.
Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This article contains Dicitonnaire phonetic symbols. The constitution of the Democratic Republic of Congo lists Kikongo as one of the national languages. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo it is called Kikongo ya leta i. The workers had diverse linguistic backgrounds which gave birth to a grammatically simplified language. This page was last edited on 28 Decemberat The name Kituba is used in the constitution of the Republic of Congo.
It is not entirely accurate to call Kituba a creole language as it lacks the distinction between superstrate and substrate influence that is typical of creole development. In the Republic of Congo it is called Munukutuba or Kituba. It is a creole language  based on Kikongoa rictionnaire of closely related Bantu languages. Language articles citing Ethnologue 18 Articles lacking in-text citations from August All articles lacking in-text citations Language articles with old Ethnologue 18 speaker data Wikipedia articles needing kikngo from July Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers.
One theory claims that it had already evolved at the time of the Kongo Kingdom as a simplified interdialectal trade language, which the European colonists subsequently took into use for regional administration. The object pronouns are used in place of subject pronouns when the subject is being emphasized. Lingala is more popular in the north. National public radios and televisions in the Ditcionnaire Republic of Congo and in the Republic of Congo use Kituba as one of their main languages for evening news.
He is not hereand Kizabave but they have largely fallen out kijongo use. Without proper rendering supportyou may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. Kituba language — Wikipedia In practice the term national language means that it is a language of regional administration and elementary education. It is not widely available. The long forms are used in formal written communication whereas the short forms have developed for spoken communication.
Kituba has kept by and large the noun classes of ethnic Kikongo with some modifications. Kituba has five vowel phonemes: Languages of the Republic of the Congo. Kituba has subject and object pronouns. Kituba is known by many names among its speakers. Kituba is a widely used lingua franca in Central Africa. The status of Kituba in Angola is not known. Kitubabecause a translation of the constitution itself is written in Kituba but no translation exists in Kikongo.
The classes 9 and 11 have in effect merged with the singular class with zero prefix, and their plural is formed with generic plural class prefix ba. First Kituba developed downriver Congoan area which is inhabited by the Bakongo.
Kituba has a well-developed verbal system involving grammatical tense and aspect. The conjugation of the verb kusala to do is presented in the table below. In the academic circles the language is called Kikongo-Kituba. In addition, many words have been borrowed from FrenchPortugueseand English. It is probable that it is understood by some of the Bakongo people there, especially those who have lived in the Republic of Congo or the Democratic Republic of Congo as refugees or otherwise.
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