Origins[ edit ] Electrogravitics had its origins in experiments started in by Thomas Townsend Brown who coined the name while he was still in high school. Brown developed this into large high-voltage capacitors that would produce a tiny propulsive force causing the capacitor to jump in one direction when the power was turned on. In Brown published "How I Control Gravitation,"  in Science and Invention where he claimed the capacitors were producing a mysterious force that interacted with the pull of gravity. Brown claimed Biefeld as his mentor and co-experimenter. Martin Company placed advertisements looking for scientists who were "interested in gravity", but rapidly declined in popularity thereafter.
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Electrostatic energy for propulsion has been predicted as a possible means of propulsion in space when the thrust from a neutron motor or ion motor would be sufficient in a dragless environment to produce astronomical velocities. So, though electrostatic motors were thought of in , electrogravitics had its birth after the War, when Townsend Brown sought to improve on the various proposals that then existed for electrostatic motors sufficiently to produce some visible manifestation of sustained motion.
As a private venture he produced evidence of motion using condensers in a couple of saucers suspended by arms rotating round a central tower with input running down the arms. The massive-k situation was summarized subsequently in a report, Project Winterhaven, in Using the data some conclusions were arrived at that might be expected from ten or more years of [Page 4] intensive development - similar to that, for instance, applied to the turbine engine.
Using a number of assumptions as to the nature of gravity, the report postulated a saucer as the basis of a possible interceptor with Mach 3 capability.
Creation of a local gravitational system would confer upon the fighter the sharp-edged changes of direction typical of motion in space. The essence of electrogravitics thrust is the use of a very strong positive charge on one side of the vehicle and a negative on the other. The core of the motor is a condenser and the ability of the condenser to hold its charge the k-number is the yardstick of performance.
With air as 1, current dielectrical materials can yield 6 and use of barium aluminate can raise this considerably, barium titanium oxide a baked ceramic can offer 6, and there is promise of 30,, which would be sufficient for supersonic speed.
The original Brown rig produced 30 fps on a voltage of around 50, and a small amount of current in the milliamp range. There was no detailed explanation of gravity in Project Winterhaven, but it was assumed that particle dualism in the subatomic structure of gravity would coincide in its effect with the issuing stream of electrons from the electrostatic energy source to produce counterbary.
The Brown work probably remains a realistic approach to the practical realization of electrostatic propulsion and sustentation. Whatever may be discovered by the Gravity Research Foundation of New Boston a complete understanding and synthetic reproduction of gravity is not essential for limited success.
The electrogravitics saucer can perform the function of a classic lifting surface - it produces a pushing effect on the under surface and a suction effect on the upper, but, unlike the airfoil, it does not require a flow of air to produce the effect.
Even in its developed form this might be an advance on the molecular heat engine in its capabilities. But hopes in the new science depend on an understanding of the close identity of electrostatic motivating forces with the source and matter of gravity. It is fortuitous that lift can be produced in the traditional fashion and if an understanding of gravity remains beyond full practical control, electrostatic lift might be an adjunct of some significance to modern thrust producers.
Research into electrostatics could prove beneficial to turbine development, and heat engines in general, in view of the usable electron potential round the periphery of any flame. Materials for electrogravitics and especially the development of commercial quantities of high-k material is another dividend to be obtained from electrostatic research even if it produces no counterbary.
One of the interesting aspects of electrogravitics is that a breakthrough in almost any part of the broad front of general research on the intranuclear processes may be translated into a meaningful advance towards the feasibility of electrogravitics systems.
This demands constant monitoring in the most likely areas of the physics of high energy sub-nuclear particles. Earlier Eddington has listed the fundamental particles as:- e. The charge of an electron m.
The mass of an electron. The mass of a proton. The velocity of light. The constant of gravitation, and [Greek letter, small lambda]. The cosmical constant. It is generally held that no one of these can be inferred from the others. But electrons may well disappear from among the fundamental particles, though, as Russell says, it is likely that e and m will survive. The constants are much more established than the interpretation of them and are among the most solid of achievements in modern physics.
The gravitational constant is one of four dimensionless constants: first, the mass relation of the nucleon and electron. One of the stumbling blocks in electrogravitics is the absence of any satisfactory theory linking these four dimensionless quantities.
Of the four, moreover, gravity is decidedly the most complex, since any explanation would have to satisfy both cosmic and quantum relations more acceptably and intelligibly even than in the unified field theory. A gravitational constant of around E [equation form] has emerged from quantum research and this has been used as a tool for finding theories that could link the two relations.
This work is now in full progress, and developments have to be watched for the aviation angle. Hitherto Dirac, Eddington, Jordan and others have produced differences in theory that are too wide to be accepted as consistent.
It means therefore that i without a cosmical basis, and ii with an imprecise quantum basis and iii a vague hypothesis on the interaction, much remains still to be discovered.
Indeed some say that a single interacting theory to link up the dimensionless constants is one of three major unresolved basic problems of physics. The other two main problems are the extension of quantum theory and a more detailed knowledge of the fundamental particles. All this is some distance from Newton, who saw gravity as a force acting on a body from a distance, leading to the tendency of bodies to accelerate towards each other. He allied this assumption with Euclidean geometry, and time was assumed as uniform and acted independently of space.
Bodies and particles in space normally moved uniformly in straight lines according to Newton, and to account for the way they sometimes do not do so, he used the idea of a force of gravity acting at a distance, in which particles of matter cause in others an acceleration proportional to their mass, and inversely proportional to the [Page 8] square of the distance between them. But Einstein showed how the principle of least action, or the so-called cosmic laziness means that particles, on the contrary, follow the easiest path along geodesic lines and as a result they get readily absorbed into space-time.
So was born non-linear physics. The classic example of non-linear physics is the experiment in bombarding a screen with two slits. When both slits are open particles going through are not the sum of the two individually but follows a non-linear equation. This leads on to wave-particle dualism and that in turn to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in which an increase in accuracy in measurement of one physical quantity means decreasing accuracy in measuring the other.
If time is measured accurately energy calculations will be in error; the more accurate the position of a particle is established the less certain the velocity will be; and so on. This basic principle of the acausality of microphysics affects the study of gravity in the special and general theories of relativity.
Lack of pictorial image in the quantum physics of this interrelationship is a difficulty at the outset for those whose minds remain obstinately Euclidean. In the special theory of relativity, space-time is seen only as an undefined interval which can be defined in any way that is convenient and the Newtonian idea of persistent particles in motion to explain gravity cannot be accepted.
It must be seen rather as a synthesis of forces in a four dimensional continuum, three to establish the position and one the time. The general theory of relativity that followed a decade later was a geometrical explanation of gravitation in which bodies take the geodesic path through space-time. In turn this means that instead of the idea of force acting at a distance it is assumed that space, time, radiation and particles are linked and variations in them from gravity are due rather to the nature of space.
The name alone was enough to put people off. However, in the trade much progress has been made and now most major companies in the United States are interested in counterbary. Groups are being organised to study electrostatic and electromagnetic phenomena. Douglas has now stated that it has counterbary on its work agenda but does not expect results yet awhile. Hiller has referred to new forms of flying platform, Glenn Martin say gravity control could be achieved in six years, but they add that it would entail a Manhattan District type of effort to bring it about.
Sikorsky, one of the pioneers, more or less agrees with the Douglas verdict and says that gravity is tangible and formidable, but there must be a physical carrier for this immense trans-spatial force.
This implies that where a physical manifestation exists, a physical device can be developed for creating a similar force moving in the opposite direction to cancel it. General Electric is working on the use of electronic rigs designed to make adjustments to gravity - this line of attack has the advantage of using rigs already in existence for other defence work.
Bell also has an experimental rig intended, as [Page 10] the company puts it, to cancel out gravity, and Lawrence Bell has said he is convinced that practical hardware will emerge from current programs. Grover Leoning is certain that what he referred to as an electro-magnetic contra-gravity mechanism will be developed for practical use. Convair is extensively committed to the work with several rigs.
Lear Inc. This list embraces most of the U. The remainder, Curtiss-Wright, Lockheed, Boeing and North American have not yet declared themselves, but all these four are known to be in various stages of study with and without rigs. Glenn L. Martin is setting up a Research Institute for Advanced Study which has a small staff working on gravity research with the unified field theory and this group is committed to extensive programs of applied research.
Many others are also known to be studying gravity, some are known also to be planning a general expansion in this field, such as in the proposed Institute for Pure Physics at the University of North Carolina. A certain amount of work is also going on in Europe. One of the French nationalized constructors and one company outside the nationalized elements have been making preliminary studies, and a little company money has in one case actually been committed.
Some work is also going on in Britain where rigs are now in existence. Most of it is private venture work, such [Page 11] as that being done by Ed Hull a colleague of Townsend Brown who, as much as anybody, introduced Europe to electrogravitics.
One Swedish company and two Canadian companies have been making studies, and quite recently the Germans have woken up to the possibilities. Several of the companies have started digging out some of the early German papers on wave physics.
They are almost certain to plan a gravitics program. Curiously enough the Germans during the war paid no attention to electrogravitics. This is one line of advance that they did not pioneer in any way and it was basically a U. Townsend Brown in electrogravitics is the equivalent of Frank Whittle in gas turbines.
This German overlooking of electrostatics is even more surprising when it is remembered how astonishingly advanced and prescient the Germans were in nuclear research. The modern theory of making thermonuclear weapons without plutonium fission initiators returns to the original German idea that was dismissed, even ridiculed. The Germans never went very far with fission, indeed they doubted that this chain would ever be made to work.
The German air industry, still in the embryo stage, has included electrogravitics among the subjects it intends to examine when establishing the policy that the individual companies will adopt after the present early stage of foreign licence has enabled industry to get abreast of the other countries in aircraft development. There are a number of elements in industry, and some managements, who see gravity as a problem for later generations.
Many see nothing in it all and they may be right. But as said earlier, if Dr. Vaclav Hlavaty thinks gravity is potentially controllable that surely should be justification enough, and indeed inspiration, for physicists to apply their minds and for management to take a risk.
Relativity and the unified field theory go to the root of electrogravitics and the shifts in thinking, the hopes and fears, and a measure of progress is to be obtained only in the last resort from men of this stature.
Major theoretical breakthroughs to discover the sources of gravity will be made by the most advanced intellects using the most advanced research tools. Aviation could also assist by recruiting some of these men as advisers. Convair has taken the initiative with its recently established panel of advisers on nuclear projects, which include Dr. Edward Teller of the University of California. At the same time much can be done in development of laboratory rigs, condenser research and dielectric development, which do not require anything like the same cerebral capacity to get results and make a practical contribution As gravity is likely to be linked with the new particles, only the highest powered particle accelerators are likely to be of use [Page 13] in further fundamental knowledge.
The country with the biggest tools of this kind is in the best position to examine the characteristics of the particles and from those countries the greatest advances seem most likely.
The Starburst Foundation
Electrogravitics Systems Integrity Research Institute has supported electrogravitics research for over two decades. The legacy of our committment to this futuristic propulsion modality is reviewed below. For those interested, you may want to start with the most popular open access journal article on the subject, which in , has just past 10, downloads. Volume II in the series - pages The scientific validation of a science that connects gravity to electricity usually could face an uphill, skeptical battle.